Androgen deficiency treatment

CAIS is also associated with an increased risk for gonadal tumors (. germ cell malignancy) in adulthood if gonadectomy is not performed. [33] [56] [57] [58] The risk of malignant germ cell tumors in women with CAIS increases with age and has been estimated to be % at 25 years and 33% at 50 years. [58] The incidence of gonadal tumors in childhood is thought to be relatively low; a recent review of the medical literature [56] found that only three cases of malignant germ cell tumors in prepubescent girls have been reported in association with CAIS in the last 100 years. Some have estimated the incidence of germ cell malignancy to be as low as % before puberty. [1]

To investigate the interaction of androgens with the IGF system, Elmlinger et al. (2001) compared the expression of IGFs and IGFBPs in cultured genital skin fibroblasts from 9 patients with the syndrome of complete androgen insensitivity with that in genital skin fibroblasts from 10 normally virilized males. Complete AIS genital skin fibroblast strains produced significantly lower IGF2 ( 147470 ) and IGF2 mRNA than control genital skin fibroblast strains. The production of IGFBP2 ( 146731 ) was also decreased in complete AIS genital skin fibroblasts, whereas that of IGFBP3 ( 146732 ) did not differ. The authors concluded that in addition to the endocrine actions of IGF1 ( 147440 ), IGF2, and IGFBP2, they are also involved as local growth factors in the mediation of androgen action and growth of genital tissues.

Vaginoplasty surgery is frequently performed on AIS infants or girls to increase the size of the vagina, so that she can engage in penetrative intercourse with a partner with an average size penis. Vaginoplasty surgery is problematic, with many failures. ISNA advocates against vaginal surgery on infants. Such surgery should be offered to, not imposed on, the pubertal girl, and she should have an opportunity to speak with adult AIS women about their sexual experience and about surgery in order to make a fully informed decision. Not all AIS women will choose surgery.

By SDS-PAGE and peptide mass fingerprinting, Ishitani et al. (2003) characterized human embryonic kidney cell nuclear proteins that interacted with purified AF-1 of AR. Proteins that interacted with AF-1 included nuclear RNA-binding protein NRB54 (NONO; 300084 ), polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF, or SFPQ; 605199 ), paraspeckle protein-1 (PSP1, or PSPC1; 612408 ), and PSP2 (RBM14; 612409 ), which are assumed to be involved in pre-mRNA processing. Binding of NRB54 to AF-1 was ligand dependent, and AF-1 function was potentiated by NRB54.

Androgen deficiency treatment

androgen deficiency treatment

By SDS-PAGE and peptide mass fingerprinting, Ishitani et al. (2003) characterized human embryonic kidney cell nuclear proteins that interacted with purified AF-1 of AR. Proteins that interacted with AF-1 included nuclear RNA-binding protein NRB54 (NONO; 300084 ), polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF, or SFPQ; 605199 ), paraspeckle protein-1 (PSP1, or PSPC1; 612408 ), and PSP2 (RBM14; 612409 ), which are assumed to be involved in pre-mRNA processing. Binding of NRB54 to AF-1 was ligand dependent, and AF-1 function was potentiated by NRB54.

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