These findings provide support for the controversial ‘extreme male brain’ theory of autism, a disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and a tendency to engage in repetitive behaviours. This theory posits that autism represents an extreme version of the normal male brain profile that is characterized by an increased systematizing ability and a reduced empathizing ability in comparison to females. The pathological impairment of empathy in autism may therefore arise from excessive “male” hormone levels during development. Accordingly, reduced 2D:4D ratios have been observed in autistic individuals and in their first-degree relatives.
Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands of both sexes and in the testes of males and the ovaries of females. Testosterone is largely responsible for the formation and maintenance of male sex characteristics, including both the larger bone and muscle development seen in males. The testosterone levels in humans are regulated by hormones released from the brain; in males the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain increase testosterone during puberty and male characteristics develop (for example, penile enlargement, facial hair, interest in sex).
“My family doctor basically told me that I had to live with my Low T problem which was not something I wanted to hear. He told me this for 2 years and in fact it made me so mad that I am no longer his patient. I decided to get checked at TCT. After a thorough evaluation, including checking my blood, they told me that Low T was not something that I had to live with and in fact, they have helped with my other medical problems. They are treating my blood pressure, cholesterol and erection problems as well. I’m in my late forties and finally feel like I have been “tuned-up”. I feel better than I have in years which allows me to focus less on me and more on the things I find important. Thank you to everyone who helped get me where I am, including my ex-doctor. Keep up the good work TCT!” — Todd J.