Ironically, the next day breaks clear and sunny for my drive to Shannon Airport. During a twisty climb on the R480, I recognize a pulloff where Keane and I stopped the day before. I park and again pick my way through hazel brush to the narrow footpath and a historical marker, undetectable from the road, identifying the early medieval ring fort known as Cahermore, situated on a hilltop so that its residents could be forewarned of the approach of strangers from land or sea. Today, unlike yesterday, I can clearly see Newtown Castle in the far valley, and beyond, Galway Bay and the distant Galway coast. The view is not notably different from what it would have been 10 years ago—or 200.
The Qanun was translated into Latin as Canon medicinae by Gerard of Cremona . (Confusingly there appear to have been two men called Gerard of Cremona, both translators of Arabic texts into Latin. Ostler states that it was the later of these, also known as Gerard de Sabloneta, who translated the Qanun (and other medical works) into Latin in the 13th century.)  The encyclopaedic content, systematic arrangement, and combination of Galen's medicine with Aristotle's science and philosophy helped the Canon enter European scholastic medicine. Medical scholars started to use the Canon in the 13th century, while university courses implemented the text from the 14th century onwards.  The Canon ' s influence declined in the 16th century as a result of humanists' preference in medicine for ancient Greek and Roman authorities over Arabic authorities, although others defended Avicenna's innovations beyond the original classical texts. It fell out of favour in university syllabi, although it was still being taught as background literature as late as 1715 in Padua.