The treatment of overdosage is essentially symptomatic and supportive. Early gastric lavage and extended dialysis might be expected to be beneficial. Centrally-acting emetics may have little effect because of the antiemetic action of Loxapine. In addition, emesis should be avoided because of the possibility of aspiration of vomitus. Avoid analeptics, such as pentylenetetrazol, which may cause convulsions. Severe hypotension might be expected to respond to the administration of norepinephrine or phenylephrine. EPINEPHRINE SHOULD NOT BE USED SINCE ITS USE IN A PATIENT WITH PARTIAL ADRENERGIC BLOCKADE MAY FURTHER LOWER THE BLOOD PRESSURE. Severe extrapyramidal reactions should be treated with anticholinergic antiparkinson agents or diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and anticonvulsant therapy should be initiated as indicated. Additional measures include oxygen and intravenous fluids.
As for aldehydes , the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to undergo deprotonation, which in turn leads to a variety of useful reactions. Deprotonation requires relatively strong bases, such as alkoxides . Deprotonation gives a nucleophilic enolate , which can further react, ., the Claisen condensation and its intramolecular equivalent, the Dieckmann condensation . This conversion is exploited in the malonic ester synthesis , wherein the diester of malonic acid reacts with an electrophile (., alkyl halide ), and is subsequently decarboxylated. Another variation is the Fráter–Seebach alkylation .
In the traditional tests for antipsychotic effect, eg antagonism of stereotypic behaviour induced by dopamine agonists, the chemical groups of antipsychotics mentioned reveal equal but dosage-dependent activity. However, the antistereotypic effects of phenothiazines, butyrophenones, diphenylbutylpiperidines, and benzamides is strongly counteracted by the anticholinergic drug scopolamine, while the antistereotypic effect of thioxanthenes, eg flupentixol is not, or only very slightly, influenced by concomitant treatment with anticholinergics.