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Many sewage treatment plants use centrifugal pumps to transfer the nitrified mixed liquor from the aeration zone to the anoxic zone for denitrification. These pumps are often referred to as Internal Mixed Liquor Recycle (IMLR) pumps. IMLR may be 200% to 400% the flow rate of influent wastewater (Q.) This is in addition to Return Activated Sludge (RAS) from secondary clarifiers, which may be 100% of Q. (Therefore, the hydraulic capacity of the tanks in such a system should handle at least 400% of annual average design flow (AADF.) At times, the raw or primary effluent wastewater must be carbon-supplemented by the addition of methanol, acetate, or simple food waste (molasses, whey, plant starch) to improve the treatment efficiency. These carbon additions should be accounted for in the design of a treatment facility's organic loading. [13]

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