A differential diagnosis for oesophageal cancer may be acute pharyngitis, retro-pharyngeal abscess, enlarged cervical glands, thyroid problems, tonsillitis, diphtheria, problematic foreign body lodged in the oesophagus, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD/GERD), and achalasia, amongst others. Oesophagectomy, or surgical resection of the oesophagus, remains one of the most complicated elective surgical procedures, with the highest mortality rate of any elective surgery (Lamb and Griffin, 2005). Ulceration of the oesophagus, and bleeding, can also occur through acid damage from gastric juices. Destruction of the nerve endings in the oesophagus, from acid damage, and other conditions, can cause achalasia which is an inability to swallow or to pass food into the stomach from the oesophagus. Scleroderma, a disease of collagenous tissue can affect oesophageal function, and muscular spasm can also cause problems with swallowing and acid reflux. Pain in the neck and chest may occur with some of these conditions, and the potential for nerve damage, or for damaged nerves to cause these conditions, makes other cervical symptoms likely. Brachial plexus damage, thoracic outlet syndrome, problems with the thyroid glands, or cervical lymph nodes, can all be connected to oesophageal dysfunction in the role of cause or effect.
Clinical research still hasn’t determined a hard threshold level for when symptoms of low T begin appearing . Some recent research suggests that symptoms of low T might begin appearing in men when their total testosterone level dips below 320 ng/dl . According to anecdotal evidence from the owner of Peak Testosterone, many men start noticing low T symptoms when their total testosterone dips into the 400s . Of course, it’s anecdotal, so take it for what it’s worth, but it’s probably a good idea to stay above 500 ng/dl if you don’t want to experience symptoms of low T.
At a recent Anti-Aging conference in Las Vegas that I attended, Dr. Huber gave an overview of testosterone. There has been an objective reduction of testosterone levels in men since the 1980’s due to pollutants in our environment. Testosterone plays a key role for heart and brain function. It affects sex drive, fertility and potency. But it also prevents diabetes, high blood pressure and weight gain. On top of that it prevents prostate cancer and likely many other cancers. The key with low testosterone is to replace it to high normal levels. Blood levels should be measured every two months, when replacement has been instituted, in order to ensure adequate levels.